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What are the classifications of electrolyzers

2021/12/10 10:48
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[Abstract]:
According to the different electrolytes, it is divided into three types: aqueous electrolytic tank, molten salt electrolytic tank and non-aqueous electrolytic tank. When the direct current passes through the electrolytic cell, an oxidation reaction occurs at the interface between the anode and the solution, and a reduction reaction occurs at the interface between the cathode and the solution to prepare the desired product.

The electrolytic cell consists of a cell body, an anode and a cathode, and most of them are separated by a diaphragm from the anode chamber and the cathode chamber. According to the different electrolytes, it is divided into three types: aqueous electrolytic tank, molten salt electrolytic tank and non-aqueous electrolytic tank. When the direct current passes through the electrolytic cell, an oxidation reaction occurs at the interface between the anode and the solution, and a reduction reaction occurs at the interface between the cathode and the solution to prepare the desired product.

Electrolyzer

According to the different classification of electrolyte:
1. Aqueous solution electrolyzer
The form of aqueous electrolysis cell can be divided into two types: diaphragm electrolysis cell and non-diaphragm electrolysis cell. Diaphragm electrolyzer can be divided into homogeneous membrane (asbestos wool), ionic membrane and solid electrolyte membrane (such as β-Al2O3) and other forms; non-diaphragm electrolyzer is divided into mercury electrolyzer and oxidation electrolyzer, etc.

2. Molten salt electrolyzer
It is mostly used to prepare low-melting-point metals, which is characterized by operating at high temperatures, and should try to prevent the entry of moisture to prevent hydrogen ions from being reduced on the cathode. For example, in the production of metallic sodium, since the cathode reduction potential of sodium ions is very negative, reduction is very difficult. Anhydrous molten salt or molten hydroxide without hydrogen ions must be used to prevent hydrogen from being deposited on the cathode.

3. Non-aqueous electrolytic cell
Because non-aqueous electrolyzers are often accompanied by various complex chemical reactions when preparing organic products or electrolyzing organic substances, their applications are limited and there are not many industrializations. The generally used organic electrolyte has low conductivity and low reaction speed. Therefore, a lower current density must be used, and the pole spacing must be minimized. The electrode structure using a fixed bed or a fluidized bed has a larger electrode surface area, which can increase the production capacity of the electrolytic cell.

Classified according to the connection method of the electrode:
According to the connection mode of the electrodes, the electrolytic cell can be divided into two types: unipolar and bipolar electrolytic cells. The electrodes of the same polarity in the monopolar electrolytic cell are connected in parallel with the DC power supply, and the polarity of the two sides of the electrodes are the same, that is, they are both anodes or cathodes at the same time. The electrodes at both ends of the bipolar electrolytic cell are respectively connected with the positive and negative electrodes of the DC power supply to become anodes or cathodes. When current flows through the electrolytic cell through the electrodes connected in series, one side of each electrode in the middle is the anode and the other side is the cathode, so it has bipolarity. When the total area of ​​the electrodes is the same, the current of the bipolar electrolyzer is smaller and the voltage is higher, and the investment of the required DC power supply is less than that of the unipolar electrolyzer. Bipolar type generally adopts the structure of filter press, which is relatively compact. However, it is prone to leakage and short circuit, and the slot structure and operation management are more complicated than the unipolar type. The cross section of the monopolar electrolytic cell is generally rectangular or square, the cylindrical shape occupies a large area, the space utilization rate is low, and the use is less.